Strategic Issue 2.

Missouri's air sustains us in everything we do. Whether working in a garden, waiting for a bus or hitting home runs, clean air provides us life energy. Missouri's air quality has steadily improved during the last decade. Today more than 65 percent of the population lives where the air quality meets government standards. To continue this positive trend, Missouri will have to balance environmental quality with the other needs of industry and Missouri's citizens. The Department of Natural Resources seeks to work together with everyone who has a stake in improving our air quality.

Air quality and emissions data provide a foundation for DNR's air-quality efforts. Standards for the various contaminants, such as ozone, delineate limits for each chemical so that human health is not adversely affected. If concentrations in the air are above that limit, the standard is not met. Whether we attain the limits or standards is the final measure of whether strategies for improving Missouri's air work.

Trends in air quality
Overall air-quality trends for carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitric oxide and particulate matter have improved. Due to the data from air-quality monitors in the St. Louis area, Missouri requested and received approval from EPA to classify the St. Louis area as meeting air-quality standards for carbon monoxide. However, more work is needed to reduce levels of ozone and lead. The majority of Missouri's population lives in the St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan areas where ozone concentrations remain a concern, especially during hot summer months. Lead concentrations remain a concern, particularly in the areas surrounding lead smelters.

The Department of Natural Resources prepared a plan to reverse the trend of ozone exceedances for the St. Louis area. The plan included several strategies that together should decrease ozone levels. Those strategies include a vehicle-emissions inspection and maintenance program and recovery of gasoline vapors at the fuel pumps. In the Kansas City area, the department is working with leaders from industry, environmental organizations and local government to develop strategies to improve air quality.

Lead can cause damage to the brain and nervous system. An area in southeast Missouri still exceeds federal health standards for airborne lead. Strategies to decrease the levels of lead in the air have been developed. Although air quality, specifically for lead, has improved in recent years, the area continues to show violations of the standards for lead. DNR is investigating the contribution to the airborne lead level by individual sources to better understand the cause of the violations. More effective strategies can then be put in place to reduce the levels of lead.

Air quality has two aspects: what components make up our air, and what it looks like, or the visibility. Work has begun to develop a monitoring network for visibility. From the data gathered, a plan will be developed to address deficiencies by 2006. Visibility will then join the other indicators of air quality for Missouri.

Air quality and global climate change
Many atmospheric scientists and climatologists are concerned that human activities increase concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This could alter global climate, affecting forests, fisheries, coastal zones, agriculture, water resources, energy demand and supply, air quality and human health.

Fossil fuel use is the source of most of Missouri's greenhouse-gas emissions. Fossil fuels include coal, oil and oil-derived fuels such as gasoline. Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel use increased about 20 percent between 1990 and 1996. If trends continue as usual, emissions from this source are likely to increase by about 43 percent, from 1990 levels, through the year 2015. Most of the projected increases come from two sources: use of coal to generate electricity, and use of gasoline and other fuels for transportation. Use of transportation fuels accounts for about 80 percent of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels in Missouri.

DNR is reviewing possible actions that could reduce Missouri's greenhouse gas emissions while providing economic and environmental benefits to the state. Similar reviews are taking place in many other states including several of our neighbors. Currently, our efforts focus on education, advocacy for environmentally sound practices that provide for economic progress and promotion of fuels that are alternatives to fossil fuels, such as solar power.

Protect and enhance the quality of Missouri's air resources
Outcome A.
Improved air quality in Missouri (Show-Me Result)

Outcome Measures

Issue 2 Outcome A1 chart.

Issue 2 Outcome A2 chart.

Issue 2 Outcome B3 chart.

Issue 2 Outcome A4 chart.

Objective 1

Regulate emissions and reduce the measured concentrations of air pollutants to eliminate exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as follows:

Objective Measures

Strategies

Objective 2

Maintain air quality so that monitors continue to show no violations of the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria pollutants in areas outside the current nonattainment areas (attainment areas).

Objective Measure

Number of National Ambient Air Quality Standards violations in nonattainment areas

Strategies

Objective 3

Maintain regulation of hazardous air pollutant emissions as follows:

Objective Measures

Strategies

Outcome B.
Protection of the state's pristine air quality areas

Outcome Measure

Visibility measurements at Hercules Glade and Mingo National Wildlife Refuge*
* This data is not yet collected. The objective below focuses on establishing the monitoring system needed to collect this data .

Objective 1

Establish a visibility monitoring network by 2001 and develop a Regional Haze State Implementation Plan by 2006 as required by federal regulations.

Objective Measure

Visibility monitoring network and state implementation plan *
* In accordance with the federal regulation, the emission reductions necessary for reasonable progress will be determined after a minimum of three years worth of data are collected.

Strategies

Outcome C.
Reduction in Missouri's contribution to global climate change

Outcome Measure

Missouri's carbon dioxide emissions

Objective 1

Decrease carbon dioxide emissions from energy use by state government, schools and local government as follows:

Objective Measure

Carbon dioxide emissions reductions

Issue 2 Outcome C1 chart.

Strategies

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